A

surface area of ceramic element (m2 )

B

bandwidth (frequency)

d

piezoelectric charge constant (C / N)

D

diameter of ceramic disc or rod (m)

                                        0

permittivity of free space (8.85 x 10-12 farad / m)

                                        T

permittivity of ceramic material (farad / m) (at constant stress

F

force

fm

minimum impedance frequency (resonance frequency) (Hz)

fn

maximum impedance frequency (anti-resonance frequency) (Hz)

fp

parallel resonance frequency (Hz)

fs

series resonance frequency (Hz)

g

piezoelectric voltage constant (Vm / N)

h

height (thickness) of ceramic element (m)

k

electromechanical coupling factor

keff

effective coupling factor

KT

relative dielectric constant (at constant stress)

l

initial length of ceramic element (m)

N

frequency constant (Hz*m)

Par1

value for parameter Par at t1 (days)

Par2

value for parameter Par at t2 (days)

Qm

mechanical quality factor

                                     

density of ceramic (kg / m3 )

s

elastic compliance (m2 / N)

S

strain

t1

time 1 after polarization (days)

t2

time 2 after polarization (days)

tan                                                      

dielectric dissipation factor

T

stress

To

temperature

TC

Curie point (°C)

                                     

velocity of sound in the ceramic material (m / s)

w

width of ceramic element (m)

Y

Young's modulus (N / m2 )

Zm

minimum impedance at fm (ohm)

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